Council Policies


Agriculture is strategic to the Nigerian economy and plays the key roles of supplying food for the population, raw materials for industries, earning of high foreign exchange which is next only to that from crude oil, providing market for the industrial sector and a key contributor to wealth creation and poverty alleviation. More than 70% of the population derives their living from agriculture and agro-allied activities, with the sector contributing about 20% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for 5% of total export. It provides 88% of non–oil earnings. Crops contribute 85% of the agricultural GDP, livestock 10%, fisheries 4% and forestry 1%. About 94% of the agricultural output is accounted for by small–scale, subsistent farmers cropping less than 2 ha. It is envisaged that Nigeria will witness a steady decline in the number of small-scale farmers and a gradual increase in the average size of farms in the coming decades.

Agriculture has traditionally been characterized as the “mainstay” of the Nigerian economy with many assigned roles to perform in the course of the country’s economic development. Among the roles conventionally ascribed to the agricultural sector in a growing economy are those of

    1. Providing adequate food for an increasing population
    1. Supplying adequate raw materials to a growing industrial sector
    1. Constituting the major source of employment
    1. Constituting a major source of foreign exchange earnings
    1. Providing a market for the products of the industrial sector

The agricultural economy of Nigeria draws a considerable part of its strength from the performance of the seed industry, which includes institutions and other stakeholders in the value chain of planting materials. In turn, the structure and conduct of the chain depend on the role of government in terms of its policy actions and interventions in the agricultural sector generally and seed subsector particularly. In this regard the role of farmers is unique as the sole source of demand for planting materials, which underscores the important role they play among other stakeholders in the seed policy process. Such an important role requires the deliberate action of the government to articulate a policy document as a reference material for agency officials and a guide to the activities of farmers and other stakeholders in the seed industry. Of course, the critical component of such a document is a definite policy statement on seed for the country, which defines the position of government on all imaginable staking points in the seed value chain and incorporates the voice of stakeholders in the choice of appropriate instruments for dealing with policy issues and challenges facing the seed industry at large.


The seed subsector of Nigeria’s agricultural economy has undergone different stages of development since the country’s independence in 1960. Despite the attainment of some stages of critical minimum institutional structure for agricultural development, the seed sub-sector remains an infant industry. The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (FMANR), established in 1966 had seed industry development as part of its mandate. However, the institutionalization of the seed policy process emerged with the establishment of the National Seed Service (NSS) in 1975 in the Department of Agriculture of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources which superintended over the articulation of policy and legal instruments to manage the seed industry over time, including the implementation of programmes and projects to move the industry forward. Following the enactment of the Nigeria Seed Law, the National Agricultural Seeds Council (NASC) was established to take over the functions of the National Seed Service and expand the scope of administration of the entire subsector. Consequent upon the constitution and inauguration of the Governing Board of the Council in 2009, the subsisting seed policy came into force in 2010.


In furtherance of the President’s National Economic Transformation Agenda, the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA) that is premised on technology, industrialized high-growth and diversified economy, and food security was developed. The Agenda promotes agribusiness, encourage private sector involvement in agro-input supply, attract private sector investment into areas of high production, reduce postharvest losses, add value to locally produced crops, and foster rural economic growth by providing rural infrastructure and increasing access of farmers to financial services and markets. The ATA is expected to create over 3.5 million jobs in the agricultural sector from the actualization of commodity value chains and provide over N300 billion of additional income to Nigerian farmers. Over N60 billion (US$ 380 million) will be injected into the economy from the substitution of 20% of bread wheat flour with cassava flour, while domestic food supply will increase by 20 million tons of produce by 2015, from the composite output of 2million tons of rice, 17 million tons of cassava, and 1 million tons of sorghum. A key component of the ATA is to promote efficiency and effectiveness of production process along their value chains with quality assurance through the establishment of regulatory mechanism, monitoring, and supervision of agricultural materials, including seeds. Specifically, the policy provides for the withdrawal of government from direct production and distribution of agri-inputs (seeds, fertilisers, etc) to farmers for the private sector through the Growth Enhancement Support scheme (GESS).

Consequent upon these policy changes which seeks to make agriculture a business rather than development projects, as well as issues that have to do with regional seed regulations and global best practices, the need for the review of the current seed policy which was anchored on the previous administration’s Seven Point Agenda, Vision 20:2020 and the National Food Security Programme became necessary. This is with a view to giving policy direction to the present and future development and operations of the seed industry and the expected roles of the various stakeholders. Therefore, the seed industry assumes a great importance as the source of enterprise initiatives and investments for generating incremental outputs of crops. In particular, the successful effort of Government towards the attainment of national food security and other goals of agricultural development depends on the performance of the seed industry that sets the limit of yield potential of other farm inputs. Such policy efforts for seed industry operate in the same policy space that governs the performance of the entire agricultural economy, thereby subjecting seed industry to the nuances of government actions and inactions in the whole sector


The review of the subsisting seed policy was undertaken under the purview of the FAO/TCP “Strengthening National Seed Systems in Nigeria” of which a major activity is the review of the seed law since ordinarily a policy is derivative of the existing legislation, in addition to the prevailing circumstances earlier stated that warranted the need for the review of the seed policy, A two-stage methodology was adopted for the development of the seed policy- a review of the subsisting seed policy and consultative workshops with various stakeholders: farmers, seed producers, policy makers, policy service providers, among others.


  • 1.1 Support and fast track varietal development, registration and release of new crop varieties as well as the rapid multiplication of released varieties.
  • 1.2 Improve the quality of seeds sold to farmers for higher yields and better income.
  • 1.3 Re-orientate the operations of public sector agencies along commercial lines.
  • 1.4 Encourage private sector participation in seed operations through appropriate policies and promotional activities/incentives.
  • 1.5 Promote technology and policy best practices in the global seed industry.
  • 1.6 Maintain genetic biodiversity of the crop ecologies


2.1 The national seed policy applies to all activities that deal with and actors involved in any matter relating to planting materials- seeds and vegetative planting materials.

2.2 The Federal Government, through its various ministries and departments under the coordination of the National Agricultural Seeds Council (NASC), shall play the lead support role, maintain public-service infrastructural and service support required to maintain efficient seed supply, enhance farmer demand for improved seeds, and create an enabling environment favorable for investment in seed business.

2.3 Government shall facilitate the production and distribution of sufficient quantities of high- quality seed of improved varieties of all relevant crops to farmers in order to ensure production of the required food, feed and fibre. Government institutions shall be supported to produce the amounts and kinds of such seed to ensure that farmer needs are met.

2.4 The public sector shall withdraw from commercial production of seeds and rather concentrate on creating enabling environment for seed business and providing adequate regulatory services to the seed industry.

2.5 The public sector shall produce only those seed categories that are required but not supplied by the private sector. As much as possible, government seed production shall be under contract with accredited seed producers who shall be paid, guided, supported and supervised in a manner that helps them grow financially and technologically to become self-sustaining private-sector seed enterprises.

2.6 The private sector shall be encouraged and supported to produce sufficient quantities of certified seeds that are required for farmers’ use.

2.7 Equal attention will be placed on both true seeds and vegetative planting materials such as seedlings, tubers, cuttings and plantlets.


3.1. National Agricultural Seeds Council
  • 3.1.1 Under the authority of the Federal Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development and reporting to him, the National Agricultural Seeds Council (NASC) shall be the principal institution for the implementation of National Seed Policy.
  • 3.1.2 The functions of NASC shall cover the administration of the national seed policy for the country including the regulation of the market towards competitiveness and quality control to protect the farm population and the environment.
3.2 Crop Variety Registration and Release Committee
  • 3.2.1 For variety evaluation, release and withdrawal, a National Crop Variety Registration and Release Committee (NCVRRC) shall be constituted. The Committee shall be made up of relevant technical members of the NASC, other relevant experts outside NASC and co-opted researchers who may be relevant to specific crops or varieties being considered. To ensure easy access to plant genetic resources required for the development of crop varieties, smooth coordination amongst the custodians and users of germplasm and facilitate smooth operation of an efficient varietal release and maintenance systen, it is envisaged that the National Variety Release Committee that is presently located outside the purview of the FMARD will be relocated to the Ministry. The proposal for relocation NCVRRC and reorganization of linkages in the varietal release and production system will be presented to the Minister as one of the early acts of the NASC.


4.1 Priority Crops
      • 4.1.1 It is expected that a large part of the seed industry would be concerned with the seed needs of Nigerian predominant crops as may from time to time be determined by the Federal Department of Agriculture (FDA). However, emphasis will be placed on millets, sorghum, maize, rice, wheat, cassava, pulses and oil crops, which are important for the achievement of food security. Furthermore, there is urgent need to develop the national capacity for the production and supply of vegetable and minor crops seeds such as onion, tomato, peppers and carrot.
      • 4.1.2 The NASC shall guide the seed industry to play a supportive role in crop diversification efforts of the Government by addressing the needs of both true seeds and vegetative planting materials of crops including cassava, taro, cocoyam, yams and fruit trees. The FDA shall update the list of priority crops to keep it in pace with the requirements of the nation.
  • 4.2 Variety Development
      • 4.2.1 NASC shall establish strong working relationship with national, regional and international genebanks with a view to facilitating access for public and private plant breeders to plant genetic resources for the development of new varieties.
      • 4.2.2 Participatory Varietal Selection (PVS) process would be adopted in fast-tracking the release process, especially of self-fertilized crops so as to create awareness about new varieties and appropriate improved crop production technology.
      • 4.2.3 Hybrid seed development and promotion: High priority will be given to development and promotion of high-yielding hybrid crop varieties by NARIs, international research institutes and private seed companies. All stakeholders, including agro-allied industries shall be encouraged to promote the adoption and use of hybrid varieties. Government shall give more emphasis to the development and promotion of hybrid crop varieties as opposed to open-pollinated varieties.
    4.3 Varietal Adaptation Testing
      • 4.3.1 Varietal evaluation would be conducted widely under the Nationally- Coordinated Research Projects (NCRPs) involving multi-location on-station trial data collected for two (2) cropping seasons and multi-location on-farm trial for two cropping season.
    4.4 Variety Registration and Release
      • 4.4.1 All varieties, both domestic and imported, that are used for the purpose of seed multiplication shall be duly released and registered as specified under the Seed Law.
      • 4.4.2 The NASC will maintain the National Variety List containing details of varieties that are registered and eligible for certification and shall regularly publish this list as specified in the Seed Law.
    4.5 Control of Varieties and Varietal Ownership
      • 4.5.1 Intellectual Property Rights: The Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) of researchers, inventors and investors in the seed industry would be safeguarded and remunerated through royalties and other returns on their efforts for a maximum of not less than 10 years to enable them recoup the expenses made on research and variety development in accordance with existing relevant IPR legislations.
    4.6 Farmers’ Rights
        • 4.6.1 Farmers will maintain their right to use, exchange, share or sell their farm-saved seed among themselves without any restriction and will have the right to continue using any varieties of their choice without being hampered by the system of compulsory registration provided they do not commercialize production emanating from proprietary varieties.
    4.7 Strategic Seed Reserve Stock
        • 4.7.1 The Government through the NASC shall establish a buffer stock for seed to meet seasonal changes in demand or to replace crops lost during times of natural disaster as well as to preserve seeds at a time of glut. Also, private sector agencies shall be required and encouraged to maintain a reserve stock.


5.1 Generation System of Seed Multiplication

5.1.1 Nigeria shall follow a three-tier system of seed multiplication- Breeder seed, Foundation seed and Certified seed under the seed certification scheme.

5.1.2 The National Agricultural Seeds Council shall supervise production of all classes of seeds (breeder, foundation and certified) to maintain the limited generation plan towards guaranteeing the production and marketing of high quality seeds.

5.2 Early Generation Seed Maintenance and Supply

5.2.1 As may from time to time be decided by the FMARD, particularly concerning food security crops, the production of foundation seeds of improved crop varieties and their subsequent multiplication as commercial seeds will be adequately funded through the NASC, State Seed Multiplication agencies, contract growers and other private commercial seed producers within the national seed rules and regulations.

5.2.2 Production of breeder seed of publicly bred varieties for national requirement shall be the responsibility of the relevant National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) that has the national mandate for any given crop.

5.2.3 Breeder seed which is the starting point for all seed multiplication shall be expected to meet all seed standards as may from time to time be prescribed by the Council. The institution that originated a variety shall have the primary and leading responsibility for the genetic purity maintenance, and multiplication of breeder seed.

5.2.4 No agency shall be allowed to produce more than one class of seed under a trade name. Private Seed companies wishing to produce both foundation and certified seeds must do so under separate trade names.

5.2.5 Production of foundation seed shall be decentralized, with the functions of NASC focused on supervision, monitoring, coordination and certification including licensing private seed companies to handle the production of foundation seed.

5.2.6 Companies with adequate capacity can produce foundation seed directly on license while NASC shall exercise the power of coordination, supervision, regulation and control for the assurance of quality maintenance. Existing seed growers who wish to produce foundation seed shall be encouraged to establish their own private Seed Enterprises which shall be duly considered for registration by the Council for that purpose. Where it is considered not profitable to do so, government will intervene in a specific and transparent manner in the interest of the public

5.2.7 It shall be the responsibility of private sector to establish enterprises for the production of certified seed.

5.2.8 Production of certified seed from foundation seed shall be carried out by duly registered and licensed seed companies only. Any Government/Public institutions interested in producing seeds for commercial purposes must float and register a seed company and thereafter seek accreditation of the company with NASC.

5.2.9 Hybrid crop varieties developed and released by NARIs shall be commercialized only by seed companies with the payment of royalties to the relevant NARIs.

5.2.10 NASC shall from time to time as the need arises organize capacity building programmes for producers of all classes of seed.

5.3 Vegetative Seeds

5.3.1 The establishment and commercialization of tissue culture laboratories in multiplying horticultural crops and other seedlings shall be promoted.

5.3.2. Producers of vegetative planting materials for sale to farmers shall be required to register with the NASC for operational license.

5.4 Seed Conditioning

5.4.1. It shall be a requirement that all seeds to be marketed and distributed in Nigeria are processed/conditioned.

5.4.2 NASC shall, in partnership with seed industry players, evolve a system of providing seed conditioning services to small-scale and community seed producers for a fee.

6.1. Quality Standards

6.1.1. Seed quality is the basis of crop performance and yield. Therefore, quality of seeds shall be the basis of all activities with a view to ensuring that seeds of highest quality that meets prescribed minimum standards enter into the Nigerian seed system irrespective of their source

6.1.2 NASC would ensure that only seed lots that meet prescribed minimum seed certification standards are offered for sale to farmers. To ensure this, joint monitoring and field inspection of breeder, foundation and certified seed plots shall be undertaken in accordance with prescribed procedures and standards stipulated in the Seeds Act and the Harmonized Seed Rules and Regulation.

6.2 Seed Quality Control Mechanisms

6.2.1 External Seed Quality Control Certification, that is independent third party guarantee, shall be compulsory for all seeds to be marketed in Nigeria NASC shall organize a seed certification system that guarantees the farmer the assurances that the seed in circulation is genetically pure and that it meets specified minimum seed certification requirements. NASC shall ensure that all seed producers comply with technical details in maintaining quality standards for certification. The NASC will carry out inspection and certification of all seed production fields throughout the country, irrespective of the producer. NASC shall collaborate with other relevant law enforcement agencies for the enforcement of quality standards in the seed industry. Certification may be undertaken on behalf of NASC by accredited and registered seed specialists who must have requisite qualifications (of at least an MSc in seed science and technology) and experience the remuneration of which shall be borne by the recipient of their service.

6.2.2 Internal Seed Quality Control Accreditation of new seed companies/enterprises and renewal of accreditation for existing seed companies and enterprises producing and marketing seeds in Nigeria shall be contingent on the existence of an internal seed quality control mechanism approved by NASC. NASC shall be responsible for the establishment of guidelines and standards for internal seed quality control system

6.2.3 Plant Protection and Quarantine

6.3 Seed Law
    1. 6.3.1 The subsisting legal framework for implementing the National Seed Policy is the National Agricultural Seeds Act No 72 of 1992 and as may be reviewed and amended by the National Assembly.
    1. 6.3.2 The seed law as well as the harmonized seed rules and regulations governing the seed industry produced by NASC shall constitute a schedule to the Seed Policy. The appropriate sanctions for violating the seed rules and regulations are as stipulated in the Seeds Act.
6.4 Seed Testing
    1. 6.4.1 There shall be regular sampling and testing of seed lots in order to enforce the seed law in accordance with the seed rules and regulations of Nigeria and ECOWAS.
    1. 6.4.2 There shall be established standard seed testing laboratories comprising the Central Seed Testing Laboratory and the Zonal Seed Testing laboratories to be equipped and strengthened with adequate quality control equipment, manpower and facilities.
    1. 6.4.3 Satellite seed testing laboratories shall be established in all the states of the federation and FCT to bring seed testing facilities closer to producers and farmers.
    1. 6.4.4 Private seed companies shall be encouraged to establish seed testing laboratories for purposes of internal seed quality control.


7.1 Basic Principles
    1. 7.1.1 Government shall encourage and support the establishment and operation of a private sector-led seed supply system, which makes improved seed available within their zone of mobility to all farmers in all crop production areas.
    1. 7.1.2 Distribution and marketing of seed of any variety emanating from formal seed sector seed agencies to farmers for the purpose of sowing will be allowed only if the said variety has been released and registered by the NCVRRC.
    1. 7.1.3 For all intent and purposes, seed should be sold on the basis of cash or on credit as appropriate. Agencies can only engage in free distribution of seed in the case of emergency or relief with the approval of NASC and the intended beneficiary communities and farmers have to be identified in collaboration and agreement with the FMARD.
    1. 7.1.4 No attempt should be made by agencies to distribute free seed that could undermine commercial sales of seed. This excludes small quantities of seeds meant for promotional purposes.
    1. 7.1.5 Marketing of certified seeds shall be carried out by duly registered and licensed seed companies ONLY.
    1. 7.1.6 Agro-dealer development programmes and seed value chain approaches shall be vigorously pursued to open up the market for seed and as a vehicle for reaching rural farming communities.
  1. 7.1.7 No agency shall market more than one class of seed under a trade name.
7.2 Market Support and Coordination
      1. 7.2.1 Appropriate instrument for fair seed pricing policy shall be put in place to ensure affordability of improved seeds while allowing remunerative profit margin for market actors.
7.3 Seed Extension and Promotion
      1. 7.3.1 Farmer’s level of awareness about use of improved seed would be enhanced through seed extension and other promotional activities such as demonstration, field days, farmer field schools, mass media and other methods.
      2. 7.3.2 The quality and volume of seed extension work would be improved through training and re-training of seed extension workers.
      3. 7.3.3 Government shall mount aggressive seed promotional campaigns on the use of improved seed at national, state LGA, and community levels to increase demand for improved seed and thereby increase the volume of seed trade and adoption.
      4. 7.3.4 The private seed sector shall seriously and regularly undertake seed extension and promotional activities to expand their market and consequently the use of improved seed.
7.4 Seed Import
      1. 7.4.1 Importation of germplasm for breeding and varietal development purposes shall be encouraged.
      2. 7.4.2 Importation of commercial seed of varieties outside the West African Catalogue of Plant Species and Varieties (WACPSV) shall only be permitted in small quantities for experimentation.
      3. 7.4.3 Application for importation of seeds in commercial quantities shall be made to NASC and such application shall be handled in a manner as specified in the Seed Act and in consonance with phyto-sanitary requirements of National Agricultural Quarantine Service (NAQS), the Nigeria biosafety guidelines and in accordance with the harmonized ECOWAS regulatory framework.
7.5 Seed Export
    1. 7.5.1. Seed export, especially to African countries, would be encouraged in order to facilitate international seed trade. Seed trade will be promoted under the seed rules and regulations of the ECOWAS sub-region as harmonized, with a view to applying regionally agreed principles and protocols that minimize trade barriers.
    2. 7.5.2 Application for exportation of seeds in commercial quantities shall be made to NASC and such application shall be handled in a manner as specified in the Seed Act and in consonance with phyto-sanitary requirements of National Agricultural Quarantine Service (NAQS), the Nigeria Biosafety Guidelines and in accordance with the harmonized ECOWAS regulatory framework.


8.1 Research

8.1.1 Research into the development and use of biotechnology in the seed industry will be encouraged provided it will not infringe on existing legal channels of introducing new varieties into the country.

8.1.2 Research into seeds that have terminator genes will be encouraged for the purpose of genotype development ONLY.

8.1.3 Importation of Genetically Modified (GM) seeds would be subject to availability of local capacity and with proper testing and adequate monitoring under the Nigerian Biosafety Guidelines. The necessary human capacity building, infrastructural facilities and equipment for risk analysis and detection shall be established in the National Seed Testing Laboratory before introduction of GM products into Nigerian market

8.2 Production

8.2.1 Genetically Modified (GM): Commercial GM seeds with terminator genes should at no time be allowed into the country


9.1 Private Sector Promotional Benefits

9.1.1 The resources of Federal Government shall be committed to the seed industry through the Council which will license the appropriate organizations or companies to produce and market improved seeds. The Council shall also encourage existing seed growers to register as seed enterprises.

9.1.2 Subject to consideration by the FMARD, and in recognition of its pivotal role as a critical food production input, subsidies will be selectively granted on seeds to reduce the cost of agricultural production and if necessary, on agricultural product prices to enhance farmers’ revenue

9.1.3 It shall be the policy of government to develop the private seed industry for foundation and certified seed production, processing and marketing through private seed producers, seed enterprises, seed distributors and dealers.

9.1.4 Participation of the private sector in policy administration shall be ensured through a strong representation of members on the Governing Board of the National Agricultural Seeds Council.

9.1.5 The access of private sector to breeder and foundation seed of publicly bred varieties for seed enterprises that do not have an independent research capability shall be ensured.

9.1.6 The right to produce and market hybrids and vegetable seeds shall be granted, including the freedom to import breeding material, subject to plant quarantine regulations, seed quality and biosafety guidelines; liberalization of the licensing of private seed producers, marketers, seed dealers, enterprises etc.

9.1.7 Other policy incentives to members of the private seed sector shall be provided, such as: Grant of pioneer status; Concessionary interest rates on loan; Exemption from import duty on equipment; Exemption from sale taxes; Tax holiday; Liberalization of letter of credit consistent with foreign exchange regulations, etc.

9.2 The Informal Seed Sector

9.2.1 In view of the fact that the informal sector made up of community seed production and farmer-saved seeds and exchanges as well as supplies from local markets as a predominant source of seeds in Nigeria, the NASC will support and enhance the informal seed sector, encouraging its role in supporting household food security, as well as catering for the crops that are not in the portfolio of the private seed sector programme, while at the same time encouraging relevant informal sector participants to systematically evolve into formal sector entities.

9.2.2 Interventions aimed at assisting the informal sector, which shall include extension education, specific seed related training schemes, research assistance in participatory breeding techniques and development of simple seed conditioning and storage facilities, shall be conducted regularly.

9.3 Seed Industry Data and Statistics

9.3.1. The NASC shall establish and maintain a system to collect and disseminate correct, current, detailed and up-to-date data on seed use, planned needs and seed availability, so that it can support management and decision-making by seed suppliers and users.

9.4 Training and Technology Application

9.4.1 The formal training of manpower in the seed industry at undergraduate and postgraduate level at Seed Technology Centres in the country shall be strengthened; the vocational training of manpower would be handled by the Council in collaboration with relevant organizations.

9.4.2 The Council shall ensure adequate and timely training of stakeholders in seed industry.

9.4.3 In certain circumstances, as may be defined by NASC, funds shall be provided for short local and overseas training of selected candidates of both public and private agencies in developed and developing seed systems


10.1 Government shall through participatory process with the private sector undertake the full formulation of strategies for implementing the seed policy with a view to fully specifying the various dimensions and instruments.

10.2 The strategy of implementation of the National Seed Policy shall be formulated against the need for proper programming of its various components.

10.3 The critical aspects of the implementation strategy shall be formulated in terms of work plan, implementation manuals, budget implications, logical framework, among others.


1.1 Effective Date

11.1.1 This National Seeds Policy shall be effective as ——————.

11.2 Applicability

11.2.1 All the components of the policy shall have long-term application, and shall continue in force indefinitely, until specifically modified under provisions of this Policy. However, such modifications shall not change the intent or philosophy of this National Seed Policy.


12.1 Policy coordination and review
  1. 12.1.1 Seed policy review exercise shall take place at least once every three years in order to capture recent developments in the seed industry.
  2. 12.1.2 Government shall involve relevant stakeholders in the seed policy review process which shall be technically sound and follow the due policy process including programme accountability to stakeholders.
12.2 Monitoring and Evaluation
  1. 12.2.1 The internal and external monitoring of the implementation of seed policy shall be carried out by appropriate organs of government in order to ensure that the policy objectives are achieved.
  2. 12.2.2 This shall be carried out in a participatory manner involving all the stakeholders in the seed industry.
  3. 12.2.3. Government shall undertake the impact assessment of the seed policy periodically to ensure desired impact is made.